CSMA/CD

CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) helps hosts to decide when to send packets on a shared network segment and how to detect collisions if they occur. For example, in a hub network, two devices can send packets at the same time. This can cause a collision. CSMA/CD enables devices to “sense” the […]

Collision & broadcast domain

Collision domainA collision domain is, as the name implies, the part of a network where packet collisions can occur. A collision occurs when two devices send a packet at the same time on the shared network segment. The packets collide and both devices must send the packets again, which reduces network efficiency. Collisions are often […]

How switches work

Each network card has a unique identifier called a Media Access Control (MAC) address. This address is used in LANs for communication between devices on the same network segment. Devices that want to communicate need to know each other MAC addresses before sending out packets.Switches also use MAC addresses to make accurate forwarding or filtering […]

Layer 2 switching

Layer 2 switching (or Data Link layer switching) is the process of using devices’ MAC addresses to decide where to forward frames. Switches and bridges are used for Layer 2 switching. They break up one large collision domain into multiple smaller ones.In a typical LAN, all hosts are connected to one central device. In the past, […]