How to Use the help Command in Linux

This tutorial explains what the help command is and how it is used to get help about the built-in commands in Linux. Learn how to use the help command through practical examples. A Linux shell contains two types of commands: internal commands and external commands. Internal commands are also known as the built-in commands. They are automatically installed as part of the shell when the shell is installed. Since internal commands are installed as part of the shell, most of them don\'t Read more [...]

How to use the info and pinfo commands in Linux

This tutorial explains how to use the info and pinfo commands in Linux. Learn what the Texinfo pages are and how they are organized and how they are read by the info and pinfo commands. What are the Texinfo or Info manual pages in Linux? When we install a software package, it automatically installs help pages that not only explain the functionality of the package but also provide a detailed description of how to use the functionality of the package. Packages prepare their help pages in one Read more [...]

Setting Date, Time, and Time Zone on Ubuntu Linux

This tutorial explains how to display or set the date, time, and time zone on Ubuntu Linux. Learn how to change or sync the system time and the hardware time manually. Date and time are two important settings of any computer system. Many features and functions (such as scheduled maintenance, backup, software updates, login hours, and downtime) depend on both settings. A computer system maintains three types of time: hardware time, system time, and network time. Hardware time When you purchase Read more [...]

Changing Date and Time on Command line Terminal

This tutorial explains how to change or sync the date and time on Ubuntu Linux using a command-line terminal. Learn how to check and set the correct date and time on Ubuntu. An Ubuntu system maintains three types of time: hardware time, system time, and network time. Hardware time: - This time is provided by the hardware clock. Computer motherboards come with a pre-installed and configured hardware clock. System time: - This time is provided by the system clock. The system clock is installed Read more [...]

How to set Immutable Sticky bit with Chattr command

This tutorial explains Chattr command append (a) and immutable (i) attributes in detail with arguments and operation (read, copy, append, move, hard link & soft link). Learn how to delete a file secured with i attribute, remove a attribute, set/unset/list a and i attribute step by step with practical examples. Since Linux is a multiuser networking operating system where several users access files or directories simultaneously, there is always a chance of deleting critical files or directories Read more [...]

How to change Default Umask Permission in Linux

This tutorial explains how Umask permissions, settings and values are defined through (login shell & non-login) in detail. Learn how to change default umask settings (777, 755, 644, 0222, etc.) globally (for all users), locally (for individual user) temporarily and permanently step by step with examples. When we create a new file or directory, shell automatically assigns the default permission to it. Default permission is the subtraction of umask permission and pre-defined initial permission. Default Read more [...]

How to use Chmod command in Linux Explained with Examples

This tutorial explains chmod command symbolic notation (r, w, x, a) and octal notation (0, 1, 2, 4) in detail with chmod command arguments and options. Learn how chmod command is used to manage Linux permission levels (user, group and other) and types (read, write and execute) step by step with practical examples. Permission levels and types Each file and directory has three permission levels (user, group and other) and three types of permission (read, write and execute) in each level. These Read more [...]

How to Configure Squid Server in Linux

This tutorial explains how to configure Squid Proxy server in Linux step by step with practical example. Learn how to use Squid proxy server to allow or deny hosts to access the internet, control what users can access from internet and cache already viewed contents for faster internet access speed in detail. Proxy servers operate as an intermediary between a local network and Internet. Requests from local clients for web services can be handled by the proxy server. Squid is a high-performance Read more [...]

Linux File Permission Explained in Easy Language

This tutorial explains Linux permission levels (owner, group & other) and permission types (read, write & execute) in detail with examples including how to change the ownership of file and directory (with chown and chgrop command) and read the applied permissions on an object from output of ls –l command step by step. Basic concepts of Linux file permission Just like other operating system, Linux also protects resources with a set of permissions. These permissions define how a user Read more [...]

How to configure DNS Server in Linux

This tutorial explains how to configure DNS server in RedHat Linux step by step with practical example. Learn how to configure DNS Server (Master, Slave, Caching-only and Forwarding-only), DNS Zone (Forward and Reverse), DNS lookup, Chroot DNS environment and DNS clients in detail. A DNS server, or name server, is used to resolve an IP address to a hostname or vice versa. You can set up four different types of DNS servers: A master DNS server for your domain(s), which stores authoritative Read more [...]

How to manage disk quota in Linux step by step

This tutorial explains how to configure disk quota in Linux step by step with practical examples. Learn basic concepts of disk quota (Soft limit, Hard limit, Grace period, Block Size and Inode Number) and Linux disk quota management commands (quotacheck, edquota, quota, repquota, quotaoff and quotaon) in detail. Basic concepts of disk quota If you are the only person who uses the disk, there is no need to implement quota at all. But if there are multiple users who use the same disk, quotas Read more [...]

How to Configure Printer Server in Linux

This tutorial explains how to configure Printer Server in Linux step by step with practical examples. Learn how to install, configure, share, test and use printer in Linux including a basic overview of CUPS (Common UNIX Printing System) and IPP (Internet Printing Protocol) in detail. Linux uses the Common UNIX Printing System, also known as CUPS. CUPS uses the Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) to allow local printing and print sharing. The /etc/cups/ directory stores all the configuration Read more [...]

How to Configure RAID in Linux Step by Step Guide

This tutorial explains how to view, list, create, add, remove, delete, resize, format, mount and configure RAID Levels (0, 1 and 5) in Linux step by step with practical examples. Learn basic concepts of software RAID (Chunk, Mirroring, Striping and Parity) and essential RAID device management commands in detail. RAID stands for Redundant Array of Independent Disks. There are two types of RAID; Hardware RAID and Software RAID. Hardware RAID Hardware RAID is a physical storage device which is Read more [...]

Learn How to Configure LVM in Linux step by step

This tutorial explains how to view, list, create, add, remove, format, mount, resize and delete Physical Volume, Volume Group and Logical Volumes in Linux step by step with practical examples. Learn fundamental and basic concepts of LVM, LVM management and essential LVM commands in detail. Basic concepts of LVM LVM stands for Logical Volume Manager. LVM is the modern way to manage the storage devices. Traditionally a hard disk is partitioned as per requirement and each partition is formatted Read more [...]
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